Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is well accepted therapy for the treatment of symptomatic systolic heart failure in defined patient subgroups. Large clinical trials over the past 20 years have shown that patients with a left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction and interventricular conduction delay benefit from this therapy. Recent advances in this field include the expansion indications for CRT to patients with mild heart failure and to those with a mildly depressed ejection fraction that require frequent right ventricular pacing. In addition, although CRT guidelines have included indications in atrial fibrillation, it is now clear that this is most effective when pacing is utilised nearly 100 % of the time, often requiring atrioventricular (AV) junction ablation. Strategies for optimising LV lead placement based on identifying late mechanical contraction or electrical delay are promising for maximising CRT response. Finally, the role of routine AV delay optimisation is no longer recommended based on the results of multicentre trials.
David D Daly Jr : Organization: Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, US
Michael R Gold: Organization: Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, US