Hypertension contributes to the progression of kidney diseases as well as to the occurrence of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke. The prevalence of hypertension is elevated in patients with kidney disease, and increases progressively as glomerular filtration rate falls. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to hypertension in renal diseases has been gained in recent years; in this article we will review the pathogenesis of hypertension in chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a special focus on vascular calcification because calcification is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity in CKD patients. Although calcification of large arteries and blood pressure increase with age, few studies have specifically investigated a possible connection between these two factors as determinants of the severity of hypertension in CKD. Finally, we will review the trends in hypertension treatment in CKD patients. Expanded understanding of the role of CKD as both a cause and a target of hypertension highlights key points of pathophysiology of hypertension and may contribute to the identification of new strategies for its prevention and treatment.
Olivier Phan :- Organization: Service of Nephrology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
Michel Burnier :- Professor of Medicine and Head of the Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Consultation
Grégoire Wuerzner :- Organization: Service of Nephrology; Clinical Research Center, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland