Transcatheter aortic valve replacement with either the balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN XT valve, or the self-expandable CoreValve prosthesis has become the established therapeutic modality for severe aortic valve stenosis in patients who are not deemed suitable for surgical intervention due to excessively high operative risk. Native aortic valve regurgitation, defined as primary aortic incompetence not associated with aortic stenosis or failed valve replacement, on the other hand, is still considered a relative contraindication for transcatheter aortic valve therapies, because of the absence of annular or leaflet calcification required for secure anchoring of the transcatheter heart valve. In addition, severe aortic regurgitation often coexists with aortic root or ascending aorta dilatation, the treatment of which mandates operative intervention. For these reasons, transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been only sporadically used to treat pure aortic incompetence, typically on a compassionate basis and in surgically inoperable patients. More recently, however, transcatheter aortic valve replacement for native aortic valve regurgitation has been trialled with newer-generation heart valves, with encouraging results, and new ancillary devices have emerged that are designed to stabilize the annulus–root complex. In this paper we review the clinical context, technical characteristics and outcomes associated with transcatheter treatment of native aortic valve regurgitation.
Roberto Spina - Interventional Cardiology Fellow, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories
Chris Anthony - Cardiology Specialist Registrar, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories
David WM Muller - Head, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories
David Roy - Interventional Cardiologist, Department of Cardiology, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, Australia